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发布于:2018-7-12 21:57:30  访问:0 次 回复:0 篇
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Planets Leading Four Most Vital XMU-MP-1 Techniques
In addition, the multiplicative interaction terms were not statistically significant (p for interaction = 0.60 for vegetables and 0.79 for fruit). In our study no association was observed between pancreatic cancer risk and consumption of vegetables, fruits and juices. We also observed no association between pancreatic cancer risk and the intake of carotenoids, vitamins and vitamin supplements. These results are in agreement with other cohort studies. Results were not modified by sex, smoking status and BMI. Inverse associations have been observed with vegetable intake in several case-control studies. The vegetable items reported in these studies were diverse, including total vegetable plus fruit,12, 13 total vegetables,11, 12, 15Brassica vegetables,11, 13, 15 dark green leafy vegetables,12Allium ALPI vegetables,12 carrots,12, 13 and raw vegetables.11, 13, 15 Also for fruit items inverse associations have buy XMU-MP-1 been reported for several types of fruit, including total fruit,10, 11, 13 citrus fruit,13 oranges,14 and bananas.14 Cohort studies on the other hand, have mainly reported null associations.16�C22 Only a few prospective studies observed protective effects of vegetables and fruits on pancreatic cancer, showing inverse associations for total fruit in Japanese men (not in women),43 cabbage consumption among Swedish women,44 vegetarian protein products, beans, lentils and peas and dried fruit intake among Adventists.45 However, two of these studies had low case numbers (<150).44, 45 The Multiethnic Cohort Study observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for high intake of fruit; this was, however, most apparent among nonsmokers and no association has been found for citrus fruit.46 For fruit juices mixed results have been observed as well, showing inverse associations12, 43 and no associations.11, 21 The Multiethnic Cohort Study found no association between total vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall; they found, however, some protection against pancreatic cancer in high-risk subgroups (i.e., current smokers and overweight/obese persons). They observed a significantly inverse association with dark green vegetable consumption among current smokers.18 They also observed an inverse association with total vegetables selleck chemicals in overweight/obese persons (��25 kg/m2). We, as well as others,21, 47 did not observe such findings. For carotenoids and vitamins, case-control studies observed inverse associations for beta-carotene,11, 23 lycopene (in men),25 vitamin C,11, 14, 23 and E;14, 23 cohort studies reported only null findings on these carotenoids and vitamin intake.19, 20 Other carotenoids, such as alpha-carotene, lutein plus zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin, have only been investigated in case-control studies so far,15, 25 showing no associations with pancreatic cancer risk.
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